In this book, Odysseus awakens and encounters the princess Nausicaa and her handmaidens at the river. Nausicaa begins to fall in love with Odysseus and agrees to help him enter the city and gain an audience with her parents, the king and queen.
There are a few passages in this section that I found interesting and wanted to discuss. The first deals with beauty.
While Nausicaa is with her handmaidens, Athena bestows divine beauty upon her, “So one could tell the princess from the maids.” (Fitzgerald Translation: p. 102) The passage likens the differentiation between Nausicaa and the maids to the difference between Artemis and the nymphs. This made me think about the association between physical beauty and the divine. In fact, as Odysseus comes upon the young women, he asks Nausicaa: “Mistress: please: are you divine, or mortal?” (ibid: p. 103) It made me think that in this tale, beauty is in essence the divine made corporeal. And as I thought about this more, I began to wonder whether wisdom and courage are also divine qualities that manifest within certain individuals. Anyway, it’s certainly something I will keep in mind as I continue reading.
As Odysseus is coming upon the women, he makes a strange choice to rely upon words instead of actions to win their support.
In his swift reckoning, he thought it best
to trust in words to please her—and keep away;
he might anger the girl, touching her knees.
So he began, and let the soft words fall:
(ibid: p 103)
What struck me about this passage is the reliance on words. On one hand, words are tools of the Trickster, and Odysseus certainly embodies characteristics of this archetype. But words are also the tools of the poet, who uses words to express divine truth. It feels like there is a double entendre here, where words could be used both for expressing truth and deceit.
Odysseus concludes his supplication to Nausicaa by invoking the importance of family and home.
And may the gods accomplish your desire:
a home, a husband, and harmonious
converse with him—the best thing in the world
being a strong house held in serenity
where man and wife agree. Woe to their enemies,
joy to their friends! But all this they know best.
(ibid: p. 104)
This is worth considering because of Odysseus’ plight. He has been kept from his harmonious relationship with Penelope, and his strong house is being attacked by the suitors, who will no doubt become his enemies. One can sense the longing he must feel, to be reunited with the person who he loves, and to be back at home. It’s a very poignant image.
The last passage I want to discuss is when Odysseus bathes himself, away from the view of the women.
They left him, then, and went to tell the princess.
And now Odysseus, dousing in the river,
scrubbed the coat of brine from back and shoulders
and rinsed the clot of sea-spume from his hair;
got himself all rubbed down, from head to foot,
then he put on the clothes the princess gave him.
Athena lent a hand, making him seem
taller, and massive too, with crisping hair
in curls like petals of wild hyacinth,
but all red-golden. Think of gold infused
on silver by a craftsman, whose fine art
Hephaistos taught him, or Athena: one
whose work moves to delight: just so she lavished
beauty over Odysseus’ head and shoulders.
Then he went down to sit on the sea the beach
in his new splendor.
(ibid: pp 105 – 106)
I found this to be very symbolic. The bathing and anointing is a form of spiritual purification, where his soul is cleansed and he is again made holy. It seems very ritualistic in the description and the fact that he now appears in “new splendor” reinforces the image of Odysseus as a divine being. When we consider this in connection with the symbolic rebirth that Odysseus experiences in Book V, the symbolism becomes even more powerful, as the remnants of the past life are washed away and the newly resurrected hero appears in god-like glory.
So that’s all I have to say regarding Book VI. As always, please share any thoughts or comments. I’d love to hear from you. Check back soon for my thoughts on Book VII.
6 responses to ““Odyssey” by Homer: Book VI – The Princess at the River”
I love the passages you chose to interpret. They really bring forward the atmosphere of a ritualistic renewal. So full of splendor and resonant with the Spring season and Easter. Thank you.
Hi Monika. Thanks for pointing out the connection between spring and ritualistic renewal. You have a great eye for spotting those connections. Cheers!
Pingback: “Odyssey” by Homer: Book VII – Gardens and Firelight | Stuff Jeff Reads
Regarding the concept of beauty, both the princess and Odysseus were described as taller — she in relation to her handmaidens, and he (in appearance anyway) after bathing. And I just thought it was interesting that Odysseus is directed straight to mama, not dad, for approval. Overall, once again, in this book the gods call the shots. Odysseus doesn’t stand a chance — he’s gonna fall for the princess even though all he wants is to go home!
Hi Jerry. Some interesting points. I went to a kabbalah class last night and the rabbi explained how the mystical quality of judgment is considered a feminine aspect. So here we have Odysseus approaching the mother to seek her approval (or judgment). More to ponder.
Thanks for the comment!
Pingback: “Odyssey” by Homer: Book VIII – The Songs of the Harper | Stuff Jeff Reads