In this book, Alkinoos holds a feast and a competition in honor of his still unknown guest, Odysseus. During the feast, Demodokos, a blind bard, sings songs which include tales of what happened to Odysseus, which stir deep and painful emotions within Odysseus as he listens.
So as I mentioned in my last three posts, each of the previous three books dealt with the theme of resurrection and rebirth associated with an element. In Book V, Odysseus is reborn through the element of earth; in Book VI he is reborn through water; and in Book VII he is reborn through fire. Now, to complete the cycles of rebirth, in this episode Odysseus experiences resurrection through the element of air.
The element of air is symbolized through the breath of the bard, Demodokos. As the bard sings the tales of Odysseus, his breath gives life to Odysseus’ past, essentially providing immortality through the art of poetry.
The following passage is worth a closer reading because it contains the key to understanding the importance of the bard’s voice in regard to the rebirth through air.
At the serene king’s word, a squire ran
to bring the polished harp out of the palace,
and place was given to nine referees—
peers of the realm, masters of ceremony—
who cleared a space and smoothed a dancing floor.
The squire brought down, and gave Demodokos,
the clear-toned harp; and centering on the minstrel
magical young dancers formed a circle
with a light beat, and stamp of feet. Beholding,
Odysseus marveled at the flashing ring.
(Fitzgerald Translation: p. 132)
The first thing to notice is that this takes place in a circle, which is a symbol of rebirth and continuity. The bard is placed in the center, signifying the central importance of the singer in the divine cycle. The dancers, representing action and emanation, circle around the source of the divine breath. It is also important to note that we again see the appearance of the number nine, the importance of which was established in Book III where the number nine symbolizes the connection between the earthly and the divine.
I want to point out that Demodokos sings three times. There is symbolic significance to this, since the number three represents, among other things, the three stages of life: birth, growth, death. After that, the cycle repeats itself with rebirth.
When we get to the third song, it is Odysseus who requests the theme, which is about how he took the lead in the attack from within the wooden horse at Troy.
The minstrel stirred, murmuring to the god, and soon
clear words and notes came one by one, a vision
of the Akhaians in their graceful ships
drawing away from shore: the torches flung
and shelters flaring: Argive soldiers crouched
in the close dark around Odysseus: and
the horse, tall on the assembly ground of Troy.
(ibid: p. 140)
Here the breath of the poet resurrects Odysseus as the words inspire visions. Words have the power to create, and many creation myths use breath or words as a symbol for the source of divine creation. For me, it makes sense that this element should be employed as the fourth level of rebirth for Odysseus.
Thanks for taking the time to read my thoughts, and have a blessed day!
7 responses to ““Odyssey” by Homer: Book VIII – The Songs of the Harper”
I think this was my favorite book immortalizing Odysseys by breath and word. Thank you, Jeff. Brilliant analysis.
Thanks Monika. Coming from you, that means a lot. Cheers!
Like Monica, I found this book especially endearing. A passage that jumped out at me was when Odysseus gives Demodokos a choice hunk o’ meat and says, “All men owe honor to the poets — honor and awe, for they are dearest to the Muse who puts upon their lips the ways of life.” That should find its way onto a Facebook post to bolster the spirits of all those writers and artists out there!
Hey Jerry. I totally agree. That was a line that stood out for me also. Cheers!
Reblogged this on Earthpages.org.
One of my favorite themes. If I remember right, the classical composer Richard Strauss did at least one, maybe two, works along those lines. Thanks for enabling reblogging Jeff!
Thank you for the reblog! Cheers.