In this episode, Odysseus essentially cleans house (pun intended). With the help of Telemachus, Eumaeus, Philoetius, and the goddess Athena near the end, Odysseus kills all the suitors and spares only the minstrel and the herald, who were deemed innocents. Odysseus then has Telemachus put the disloyal maids to death.
I have a lot to say about this episode, which is clearly the climax of the epic. The first section I want to point out is when Athena appears. She acts quite differently from when she appears in other parts of the text. Throughout, she always offers assistance to Odysseus immediately, but not this time. Now, in his most dire hour, she withholds bestowing power upon him. Odysseus must now prove himself worthy of the goddess. It is as if this is Odysseus’ true test, almost like he is on trial and must demonstrate that he deserves to have divine power bestowed upon him.
For all her fighting words
she gave no overpowering aid—not yet;
father and son must prove their mettle still.
Into the smoky air under the roof
the goddess merely darted to perch on a blackened beam—
no figure to be seen now but a swallow.
(Fitzgerald Translation: pp. 416 – 417)
When Athena finally reveals herself and prepares to join the battle, the suitors are thrown into panic. The description of the scene draws on imagery of birds of prey swooping down on their victims, which echoes the imagery seen in the omens and visions presented throughout the text.
And the suitors mad with fear
at her great sign stampeded like stung cattle by a river
when the dread shimmering gadfly strikes in summer,
in the flowering season, in the long drawn days.
After them the attackers wheeled, as terrible as falcons
from eyries in the mountains veering over and diving down
with talons wide unsheathed on flights of birds,
who cower down the sky in chutes and bursts along the valley—
but the pouncing falcons grip their prey, no frantic wing avails,
and farmers love to watch those beaked hunters.
So these now fell upon the suitors in that hall,
turning, turning to strike and strike again,
while torn men moaned at death, and blood ran smoking
over the whole floor.
(ibid: pp. 418 – 419)
Homer uses the metaphor of cattle when describing the suitors. Throughout the text, cattle are generally offered as sacrifices to the gods. I cannot help but seeing the suitors as sacrificial beasts, slaughtered to appease the gods. Also, the falcons seem to symbolize divine justice. As I read this, I was reminded of W.B. Yeats’ poem, “The Second Coming.”
Turning and turning in the widening gyre
The falcon cannot hear the falconer;
Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold;
Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world,
The blood-dimmed tide is loosed, and everywhere
The ceremony of innocence is drowned;
(Excerpt from “The Second Coming”)
One passage that I found particularly fascinating was the scene where the minstrel and the herald are spared. It is Telemachus, the son, who is the one who can bestow forgiveness.
Telemakhos in the elation of battle
heard him. He at once called to his father:
“Wait: that one is innocent: don’t hurt him.
And we should let our herald live—Medon;
(Fitzgerald Translation: p. 420)
I see a connection here between Telemachus and Christ. Both are figures who can offer mercy and intervene on behalf of a person. Forgiveness can only be attained through the son.
The last section from this episode that I want to look at also contains imagery and symbolism that we find in the Christian Bible.
“Let me have the fire.
The first thing is to purify this place.”
With no more chat Eurykleia obeyed
and fetched the fire and brimstone. Cleansing fumes
he sent through court and hall and storage chamber.
(ibid: p. 425)
Whenever I hear about fire and brimstone, I cannot help but envision the Christian hell. I had always viewed fire and brimstone as symbols for punishment, when actually, they are symbols of purification, as expressed here. This changes my interpretation of biblical hell. It is not a place of punishment as some would assert, but a symbolic cleansing of the soul, a purification of the spirit before it is reunited with the divine source.
This book is definitely the climax of the epic, and it works on many levels. The symbols, metaphors, and the pace of the text all work together to create the climactic sequence, which has been steadily building throughout the tale.
2 responses to ““Odyssey” by Homer: Book XXII – Death in the Great Hall”
Very astute of you to catch a parallel between Telemachue and Christ. Considering that the poem predates Christ by centuries, now I’m wondering if the image of fire and brimstone traces from the main hall at O’s house right down to the Bible, which of course was written largely in Greek. There’s probably a whole dissertation or two’s worth of work there for somebody, and it’s probably been done plenty of times. Well, I’m no scholar, but the climax of this epic did not disappoint this reader. The buildup was intense, so the climax had a lot to live up to. I found Telemachus’s method of execution for the bad girls both more civil than what O had suggested, and somehow more cruel because it sounded like it would take some time for them to strangle. One thing about it, those Greeks didn’t mess with rehabilitation.
Hey Jerry. Great comment! I agree that there is a lot that can be written about here. I try to keep it digestible 😉 And yes, the writing is excellent. I guess that’s why people are still reading this thousands of years later.